Amritsar

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Amritsar is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state in India. The city origin lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth Sikh Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.

Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab. According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 456 km (283 miles) northwest of Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away. The closest major city is Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, located 50 km (31.1 mi) to the west. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib (commonly known as the Golden Temple), the spiritual and cultural centre for the Sikh religion. This important Sikh shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal with more than 100,000 visitors on weekdays alone and is the most popular destination for non-resident Indians (NRI) in the whole of India.The city also houses the Akal Takht, the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa, and the committee responsible for the upkeep of Gurdwaras. The Ramtirth temple situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana. According to the Hindu mythology, Goddess Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple.

The main commercial activities of Amritsar include tourism, carpets and fabrics, farm produce, handicrafts, service trades, and light engineering. The city is known for its rich cuisine, and culture, and for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919 under British Rule. Amritsar is home to Central Khalsa Orphanage, which was once home to Udham Singh, a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement. Gandhi Ground is the main sports complex in the city which is home to the Amritsar Games Association, (AGA). Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Climate


Amritsar is located at 31.63°N 74.87°E with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).Amritsar has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in).The lowest recorded temperature is −7.6 °C (18.3 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013.

History


Amritsar is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state in India. The city origin lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth Sikh Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.Earlier, Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das.)

Amritsar's central walled city has narrow streets mostly developed in the 17th and 18th century. The city is a peculiar example of an introverted planning system with unique areas called Katras. The Katras are self-styled residential units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city.

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killing of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day). In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date".

On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30

Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.

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Partition of British India into India and Pakistan had a most profound effect on the demographics, economics, culture, political and social structures of Amritsar. The state of Punjab was divided between India and Pakistan and Amritsar became a border city, often on the front lines of India-Pakistan wars. Prior to partition, the Muslim league wanted to incorporate Amritsar into Pakistan because of the Amritsar's proximity to Lahore and a nearly 50% Muslim population,[citation needed] but the city became part of India. The Indian National Congress had similar aims of incorporating Lahore into India as Lahore was the cultural, economic, and political capital of undivided Punjab and Hindus and Sikhs constituted nearly 50% of the population, but Lahore became a part of Pakistan. Amritsar and Lahore experienced some of the worst communal riots during the partition of India. Muslim residents of Amritsar left the city en-masse leaving their homes and property behind because of violent anti-Muslim riots in Amritsar. Similar scenes of communal carnage against Hindus and Sikhs were witnessed in Lahore and led to their mass evacuation.


state Punjab,India
Country India
Area 2,683 km²
Languages Punjabi,Hindi,English
Currency Ruppee

Golden Temple

Sri Harmandir Sahib, also Sri Darbar Sahib, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is the holiest Gurdwara of Sikhism, located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

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Jalianwala Bagh

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when a crowd of nonviolent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala .

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Wagah Border

Wagah is a village situated in Lahore District, Punjab, Pakistan and serves as a goods transit terminal and a railway station between Pakistan and India, and lies on the old Grand Trunk Road between Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan and Amritsar, India.

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Durgiana Temple

The Durgiana Temple, also known as Lakshmi Narayan Temple, Durga Tirath and Sitla Mandir, is a premier temple situated in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. Though a Hindu temple, its architecture is similar to the Golden Temple of Sikh religion.

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Tarn Taran

Tarn Taran Sahib is a city in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, in northern India. It is the district headquarters and hosts the municipal council of Tarn Taran district.

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Akal Takht

The Akal Takht, meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts of the Sikhs. It is located in the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.

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Harike Wetland

Harike Wetland also known as "Hari-ke-Pattan", with the Harike Lake in the deeper part of it, is the largest wetland in northern India in the border of Tarn Taran Sahib district and Ferozepur district of the Punjab state in India.

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Maharaja Ranjit Singh Museum

Museum dedicated to the Sikh Empire founder displaying armour, paintings & other historical objects.

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Bathinda Fort

Bathinda is a city and Municipal Corporation in Southern part of Punjab.

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Goindwal Sahib

Known to be the axis of Sikhism, Gurudwara Goindwal Sahib is located in Tarn Taran District of Punjab and believed to be very divine among the followers of Sikhism.

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Guru Ka Langar

If the Golden Temple is number one on your list, we strongly suggest you partake.

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Langar is a community feast prepared in a kitchen within the temple premises on a large scale (for at least 40,000 people). Everybody is welcome and is seated in rows while they are served by volunteers. The devotion of service to community is absolutely tear jerking. Jostling with other devotees and visitors for a taste of Kada Prasad is worth it, considering that it has a taste like no other. Maybe it's because discrimination and inequality are things that are not tolerated within the walls of the temple.

Bharawan Da Dhaba

If being in Punjab makes you crave those stereotypical Punjabi delights.

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If being in Punjab makes you crave those stereotypical Punjabi delights, you've come to the right place. Makki ki roti with sarson da saag, stuffed kulchas (potatoes or paneer) with chhole are just some things that they do better than any place in Delhi or London. Do keep in mind, Bharawan is "pure veg" due to their close proximity to the Golden Temple. But don't let that hamper your decision just because you're a hardcore meat-eater. The kebabs can wait.

Paya At Pal Da Dhaba

Probably not something you would get used to, but hooves are a delicacy and we know just the place.

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Probably not something you would get used to, but hooves are a delicacy and we know just the place. Located near the Hathi Gate, the Dhaba is run by its proprietor who is also the iron chef in the kitchen. A simple broth spiced with garam masala, chilli and lentil leaves and generously blessed with pieces of hooves, the dish is best paired with kheema paratha, although it breaks into a million pieces in your hand.

Ahuja Lassi

Situated near the Hindu College and Durgiana Temple, every autowallah knows.

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Situated near the Hindu College and Durgiana Temple, every autowallah knows how to get here so you're not alone. Churned the way lassi is, the Ahuja's secret ingredient is a natural essence the many patrons still cannot decipher. The original lassi is hands down the best so far, and we suggest a tall steel glass of it first thing in the morning.

Pinni, Kanha Sweets

ITC Welcome Heritage Ranjit’s SVAASÁ is a luxury heritage spa resort located.

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Pinni are sweetmeats or laddoo made from lentil and jaggery and are a popular souvenir from Amritsar. Kanha Sweets also has amazing halwas and besan laddoos.